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Wade-Davis Bill of 1864: Definition, Summary & Quiz

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Adam Richards

Adam has a master's degree in history.

The Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 represented the legislative policies that Radical Republicans attempted to enact during the early stages of Reconstruction. Learn what measures the bill attempted to adopt as well as its ultimate demise.

We also recommend watching The Red Scare of the 1920s: Definition, Summary & Causes and The Bill of Rights: The Constitution's First 10 Amendments

Introduction

Following a period of reprehensible behavior, those parties involved in the malevolent act are usually punished by an authoritative power. This is a good way to understand the period of Reconstruction that began in 1863. When the tide of the Civil War turned in favor of the Union, President Abraham Lincoln and Congress began developing plans for the post-war United States. Lincoln supported a lenient form of discipline, outlined in his Ten Percent Plan. However, Radical Republicans in Congress sought a harsher form of punishment for those who rebelled. The proposed Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 was the legislative manifesto that represented the radical notion of extreme discipline.

Definition

The Wade-Davis Bill of 1864 was crafted by Radical Republicans Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Congressman Henry Winter Davis of Maryland. Both men served on some form of reconstruction committees in their respective chambers and believed in absolute punishment to be levied against the South as a condition of re-admittance during Reconstruction.*

*This is an important concept to remember. The Radical Republicans believed that those in rebellion had to be re-admitted into the Union. Lincoln did not believe in such an idea.

The proposed provisions included in the Wade-Davis Bill were inflexible. First, the legislation called for a complete abolition of slavery to prevent any type of residual survival the institution might have following the conclusion of the war (remember, the Thirteenth Amendment did not become law until 1865, meaning there was no law in place to abolish slavery in 1864). Second, the bill required 50% of rebellious voters to swear allegiance to the Union. Finally, the bill demanded that a constitutional convention occur before state officers were elected and those who vote for the aforementioned officers had to take an 'ironclad oath' claiming they never supported the secession.

The proposed measures were strict, but Radical Republicans believed they were necessary in order to prevent, what radicals considered, treasonous behavior to ever occur again in the United States.

To a Vote

The House of Representatives were the first to vote on the Wade-Davis Bill. On May 4, 1864, the House passed the legislation by a razor-thin vote of 73 to 59. The bill moved onto the Senate were, again, it narrowly passed. On July 2, 1864, the Senate passed the bill 18 to 14. It seemed as if the legislation was going to be enacted into law as long as President Lincoln signed the bill in time. This is where the history of the impending legislation became very interesting.

Lincoln and the Pocket Veto

The July 4th reflection period represented an adjournment of the congressional session in order to celebrate the anniversary of the nation's independence. Since the Wade-Davis Bill was passed on July 2nd, Lincoln only had two days to sign the legislation into law before it would be lost at the end of a Congressional session.

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