What Is Paranoid Personality Disorder? - Treatment, Symptoms & Causes
Paranoid Personality Disorder is an Axis II Personality Disorder listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Key features of Paranoid Personality Disorder include a pervasive pattern of distrust and suspiciousness of others.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Paranoid Personality Disorder is an Axis II Cluster A Personality Disorder. All personality disorders display an enduring and inflexible pattern of behavior and experience that is markedly different from the norm. The pattern is clearly seen in multiple areas including cognition (thoughts), affect (feelings), interpersonal functioning (relationships), and impulse control. These behaviors lead to impairment in multiple areas of functioning.
Individuals with Cluster A Personality Disorders appear odd and eccentric. The cause of Paranoid Personality Disorder is not known. As with other Axis II disorders, the development is thought to be a combination of factors including biological, psychological, and social interactions.
There are numerous criteria that need to be met in order to be diagnosed with Paranoid Personality Disorder. The symptoms generally begin in early adulthood and can be seen in a variety of contexts. Symptoms also tend to be seen in males more than females.
People with Paranoid Personality Disorder are suspicious of others and assume that others will harm, deceive and/or exploit them, even if there is no evidence to support this. They have these suspicious feelings and thoughts about others that are not based on any facts at all. They may also feel that they have been deeply injured by another, even though no actions to support this have transpired. They are completely preoccupied about the loyalty and trustworthiness of their friends, and tend to scrutinize every action.
Any perceived deviation from trustworthiness will serve to support their underlying assumptions. For example, if a friend cancels a date because he or she is ill or stuck in traffic, the person with Paranoid Personality Disorder will view this as an act of betrayal that supports the idea that no one should be trusted.
People with Paranoid Personality Disorder are very reluctant to confide in others or become close to others for fear that any information that they share will be used against them. If they are asked a personal question, even about a seemingly unimportant topic, they will not want to answer. For example, if they were asked what time they wake up in the morning, they may reply with something like it is none of anyone's business. The fear that the information will be used against them prevents them from sharing any personal data.
Those with Paranoid Personality Disorder will put hidden meanings into benign remarks or events. For example, if a cashier gave them change of a $1 bill instead of $10 bill, they would view it as a deliberate attempt to shortchange them and cheat them. If someone at school offers to help them with a project, they view it as a criticism that others believe that they cannot do it on their own.
Individuals with Paranoid Personality Disorder and very unforgiving of insults or injuries and will hold a grudge against others. The hostility that they feel as a result of an insult will be longstanding as well. They often feel that others are attacking their characters in some way and are very quick to attack back as well.
People with Paranoid Personality Disorder are jealous and suspicious of their partners and spouses. They will consistently accuse their partners of being unfaithful and will gather minor, insignificant evidence to support their unfounded suspicions. Clearly, these are very difficult individuals to be in a relationship with on any level. Their suspicions and hostility can be expressed by being argumentative, angry, combative, jealous, and guarded and secretive as well.
People with Paranoid Personality Disorder tend to blame others for their shortcomings and have a great deal of difficulty accepting criticism too. They do not view any feedback as constructive and will view all judgment as a negative attack on them with the goal of hurting or deceiving them.
As with all personality disorders, treating a person with Paranoid Personality Disorder can be quite demanding. There is no known cure for Paranoid Personality Disorder, but counseling including a combination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and medication can be effective.
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