Who Is Henry Hudson? - Facts, Voyage & Route

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Crystal Daining

Crystal has a master's degree in history and loves teaching anyone ages 5-99.

Henry Hudson was an English explorer and navigator. Learn more about his life and the four important expeditions that he made while trying to find a direct route from Europe to Asia.

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Henry Hudson (1565-1611) was an English explorer and navigator who helped with the first European explorations of the Arctic Ocean and northeastern North America. Little is known about his early life, until Hudson was hired by the Muscovy Company in 1607. The Muscovy Company wanted Henry Hudson to find a direct waterway from Europe to Asia.

Portrait of Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson

Hudson was known to be very headstrong and adventurous. He undertook four major expeditions to try to find the direct waterway from Europe to Asia. His relentless search for this waterway resulted in Hudson helping discover New York City's excellent harbor as well as drawing European attention to the vast natural resources of North America.

Hudson's Four Voyages

In his first voyage, Hudson and his crew struggled with icy and cold conditions from the very beginning. They were only able to explore some of the islands near Greenland before they had to turn back. However, Hudson's reports noted an abundance of whales in the area, so many Europeans used this knowledge to start whale hunts.

In his second trip the following year, Hudson tried again to find a direct route from Europe to Asia. Hudson attempted this by trying to go north of Russia, through the Arctic Ocean. However, this also proved a failure as the route was eventually blocked by ice.


On his third journey, Hudson decided to try going west to find the route to Asia. He and his crew crossed the Atlantic Ocean and first came ashore in what is now Nova Scotia. It was on this trip that he found the New York City harbor and explored the coast and up some of the rivers before returning to England.

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