Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems
About this chapter
We have a few instructors, Greg Chin, Heather Adewale and Josh Anderson, who will guide you through understanding the different parts and functions of the male and female reproductive systems. You'll explore each system to learn about the complex processes and functions that eventually lead to the creation of life. After completing this chapter, you'll have studied:
- Meiosis, including reductional cell division and equational cell division
- The parts of the male reproductive system and the creation and transport of sperm and seminal fluid
- The female reproductive system, including its parts and how eggs are produced
- The HPG axis, including the hormonal control of the ovarian cycle, changes in hormone levels of the hypothalamus and the ovaries across the ovarian cycle
- The follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and the phases of the uterine cycle
- The process of life, from ovulation to implantation
|Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division||See how the division of chromosomes gets underway through the first stages of meiosis.|
|Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division||Go through the second phase of meiosis to study more about cell division.|
|Male Reproductive System: Organs, Functions & Anatomy||Study the parts of the male reproductive system that are responsible for creating and transporting sperm.|
|Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions||Examine the internal male reproductive system, specifically the accessory glands.|
|Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams||Analyze the structure and function of the testes.|
|Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy||Learn about the external male anatomy.|
|Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm||See how sperm is produced.|
|Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice||Explore the journey of sperm through the male system.|
|Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy||Examine the internal structures of the female system.|
|The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts||Study this area of the female system, including a look at the perimetrium, endometrium and cervical canal.|
|External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System||Find out more about the external anatomy of the female system, including the vaginal canal and clitoris.|
|Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs||Discover how the female body produces eggs.|
|HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle||Explore how hormones and the HPG axis affect the ovarian cycle.|
|Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle||Discover the characteristics of the follicular phase.|
|Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle||Study the luteal phase with a focus on hormones.|
|The HPG Axis: Hormone Level Changes in Hypothalamus and Ovaries||Study the hormone changes and the effects on the ovaries.|
|The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes||Analyze the changes in the uterus throughout the uterine cycle.|
|Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes||Discover more about the journey of the oocyte from the ovary to the uterus.|
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
Ever wonder what the inside of a male looks like? Find out in this lesson that explores the inner workings of the male reproductive system and the pathway that sperm takes.
Males require a number of different glands to aid in the production of semen. Find out more about those glands in this lesson covering the male accessory glands.
Ever wonder about where sperm is made? Find out in this lesson covering the function and anatomy of the male testes. We'll talk about sperm and testosterone production and how the two work together.
Learn about the structure and function of the external reproductive structures of the male. This includes study of the scrotal sac, the parts of the penis and the erectile tissues.
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
Follow newly created sperm as they make their way from their origin of creation, the male testes, all the way to the exit of the male reproductive tract.
Do you know how your body communicates? How does the brain get in touch with other parts of the body? In this lesson you will learn about how the male's brain uses hormones to communicate to the testes as a way of regulating reproduction.
Ever wonder where a female produces her eggs or how they get from the ovary to the uterus? Find out in this lesson about the internal reproductive anatomy of females.
Learn all about the structure responsible for the development of babies in this lesson on uterine anatomy. Discover the three layers of the uterus and each layer's purpose.
We all know that men and women are different. But just how different are they? Learn a little more about the differences between men and women in this lesson on female external reproductive anatomy.
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
Just like the human body has to grow and mature before it is ready to reproduce the female's gamete, the egg also has to grow and mature. This lesson will introduce the process through which that occurs, the ovarian cycle.
Everything in the female reproductive system is connected. See how the brain interacts with the ovaries during the female's ovarian cycle in this lesson covering the female HPG axis.
The female gamete, the oocyte, grows and matures in a process known as the ovarian cycle. Learn about the first part of the ovarian cycle, the follicular phase, in this lesson.
Each month, the ovaries recruit and mature a subset of oocytes in preparation for ovulation. Learn what happens after ovulation occurs in the second phase of the ovarian cycle, known as the luteal phase.
Without proper communication between the brain, ovaries and uterus, reproduction might not be as efficient. Learn about how these organs work together to ensure the body is ready for reproduction.
The third (and final) phase of the uterine cycle is the secretory phase. During this phase, the uterine tissue regrowth is completed in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy and the implantation of a fertilized egg.
A woman's body goes through many changes as it prepares for the possibility of pregnancy. Learn about how the uterus prepares for pregnancy by building up its inner lining during this lesson on the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle.
Each month the female's uterus prepares for the potential of pregnancy. However, pregnancy doesn't occur the majority of the time. In those months, the female's uterus has to 'reset' itself for the next month. It does that during the first phase of the uterine cycle, menses.
Just like a woman's ovaries go through the monthly cycle of recruiting eggs, her uterus also goes through a monthly cycle as it prepares for the possible implantation of a fertilized egg. This lesson will introduce you to the phases and hormones of the female's uterine cycle.
Follow the female's egg as it leaves the ovary and travels down the uterine tube on its way to the uterus - all with hopes of meeting up with a male's sperm along the way.