About this chapter
Chemistry is all about reactions, but understanding and classifying these reactions can be tricky. Don't worry; we teach you all the tricks. Our video lessons begin this journey with synthesis and decomposition reactions to help you write, identify and predict the products of either reaction. From there, we move on to the Arrhenius definition of acids and bases. Learn how to identify strong acids and bases while examining the many uses of acids. To cover all the bases, we also study how to identify acids and bases with the Bronsted-Lowry definition and the Lewis definition.
Don't think we're finished with acids and bases just yet. They're a cornerstone of chemical reactions, so we also explore the neutralization process for acid-base reactions and study amphoteric compounds than can act as both an acid or a base. Speaking of amphoteric compounds, we shift to water to show how its autoionization contributes to hydroxide and hydronium in a given reaction. Learn the strength of acids and bases as we investigate the pH scale. We also demonstrate how to calculate the pH as well as the pOH of any given solution.
We learn how bonding occurs in coordination compounds and move into precipitation reactions. Find out how to predict whether a precipitate will form and how to write net ionic equations. When it comes to oxidation numbers, we show you the rules for assigning these values, so you know how to find the find the oxidation numbers for elements in a chemical formula. With these concepts in mind, we can learn how to balance redox reactions using the half-reaction method. Learn how to identify oxidizing agents and reducing agents along the way.
We navigate the metals that make up the activity series and use them to predict the products for single displacement reactions. Learn how to identify the parts of an electrochemical cell and describe their functions. The half-reaction method comes in handy once more when it comes to cathode and anode half-cell reactions. Our exploration of chemical reactions leads us to explosive findings as we learn about combustion reactions. Find out to write and balance these equations. Don't be surprised if all these terms start to creep into your everyday life - we're relevant like that. Thanks for watching!
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definition of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor and what a conjugate acid or base is.
From this lesson you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH or of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
Learn to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with them. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
Watched all the videos in this chapter?