Home Health Care Jobs: Career Options and Requirements
Home health care jobs are expected to increase over the next decade. The aging population, improvements in medical care, cost concerns and the desire for people to remain at home when sick or dying are all contributing to this growth. Opportunities and requirements for these jobs depend on the skills and responsibilities expected in diverse home settings.
Career Options and Requirements for Home Health Care Jobs
Jobs that involve dispensing care to the elderly or sick call for certain characteristics such as compassion, desire to help, honesty and physical strength. The demands of the job - long hours, difficult tasks, emotional stress and low pay - result in high turnover rates. Entry-level jobs, such as aides, often don't require a high school diploma or formal training. Those wishing to become a licensed practical nurse or registered nurse need additional education and certification.
Personal Care Aides
Personal care aides, commonly known as caregivers or companions, are most often found in residential care facilities and private homes. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that personal care aides earned a mean annual salary of $20,990 in 2013, and that employment opportunities in the field would increase 49% between 2012 and 2022 (www.bls.gov).
Requirements for Home Care Aides
Caregivers require few medical skills. They frequently are hired without high school education or formal training, particularly if employed directly by a family. Some agencies require a minimum of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification and passing of a tuberculosis (TB) test. Training is usually on-the-job.
Home Health Aides
The BLS reported in 2013 that home health aides earned a mean salary of $21,020. The BLS also predicted that this fast-growing segment of health care would have a 48% increase in jobs from 2012-2022. As with caregivers, home health aides have limited opportunities for advancement without additional formal training. It is common for those already pursuing medical training in nursing to be employed as caregivers or health aides.
Requirements for Home Health Aides
Home health aides may work privately with no training or certification; however, agencies that receive government reimbursements for medical care must comply with federal regulations. To be eligible for agency employment, home health aides may need CPR training, negative results on their TB test, evidence of current vaccinations and acceptable general health. Some employers also require a current driver's license, use of a vehicle and proof of car insurance.
Nursing aides have limited options apart from the kind of setting in which they work. According to the BLS, those aides employed in the home health care industry earned a mean salary of $23,940 in 2013, and demand was expected to increase 21% for all nursing assistants, including aides, between 2012 and 2022.
Requirements for Nursing Aides
Some states require certification for employment as nursing aides; however, there are still opportunities to receive on-the-job training without certification in non-regulated settings. The demands of the job determine the specific skill requirements, but they are similar to those of home health aides.
Licensed Practical Nurses
Licensed practical nurses (LPN) perform more skilled work than aides and may hold supervisory roles. The BLS reported a mean salary of $42,910 in 2013 for LPNs, along with an expected 25% increase in jobs over the 2012-2022 decade. Many LPNs continue training to become registered nurses.
Requirements for Licensed Practical Nurses
LPNs must be licensed to practice, which requires a high school diploma and completion of a state-approved training program. Some states require evidence of continuing education to maintain licensure.
Registered nurses (RN) have the greatest salary and career opportunities compared to aides and LPNs. According to the BLS, RNs employed in a home care setting in 2013 earned a mean salary of $66,910, and employment growth between 2012 and 2022 for all RNs was expected to be 19%. RNs can specialize by type of patient or medical area; with increased training and education, they can perform sophisticated tests and exams and prescribe medication. Many RNs are self-employed, and those with experience may open their own home health care businesses.
Requirements for Registered Nurses
RNs must have a degree from a recognized program and pass the national licensing exam. There may be other requirements determined at the state level. A bachelor's or master's degree in nursing may open up opportunities for advancement.
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