Horse Trainer: Job Description, Duties and Requirements
Horse trainers work with horses to prep them for riders, races and horse shows. Horse trainers are required to have expert riding skills and knowledge of horse management.
Horse trainers, also called equine trainers, prepare the horse to accept riders. They get horses well-adapted to wearing saddles and bridles and teach the animals riding commands. Horse trainers also work with horses to correct behavioral problems or issues related to abuse or other trauma. Trainers may prepare horses for racing, trail work or horse shows.
Horse trainers use different methods to get horses to respond to them, such as giving treats and other positive reinforcement when the horses do something well. To get the horses used to human contact, horse trainers use their voices and plenty of physical contact. Slowly, trainers bring in other people to help the animals become used to responding to different riders' commands.
Trainers analyze horses' behaviors to assess the horses' dispositions. They use this information to correct any behavioral problems such as head tossing, kicking, biting and dominance assertion. Other traits trainers may address include bolting, nervousness and restlessness. The horses' personalities also provide horse trainers with insight in determining the horses' training capacities.
Most trainers also observe a horse's nutrition, feeding habits and health, which may be discussed with veterinarians and horse nutritionists if the trainer suspects the animal is ill. Because horses are frightened easily, horse trainers work on ways to counteract that tendency. Throughout the training period, horse trainers may be thrown off the horse, stomped on, kicked or bitten.
Horse trainers who prep horses for riders or horse shows teach horses different commands for when to perform a certain task or trick. Horse trainers use different training styles to coach horses for different equestrian events, including:
- Dressage - a horse learns to perform set movements in a precise manner
- Cutting - a Western style of training where the horse learns to herd livestock
- Barrel racing - a rodeo event that requires the horse to execute a clover-shaped course
- Trail riding - a horse learns to walk along trails
- Show jumping - a horse learns to jump fences of various heights
- Reining - a Western form of dressage
- Western pleasure - trains the horse to enjoy being ridden by scoring based on whether the horse appears pleasant to ride
Horses being trained for races often perform early morning exercises, and then take a break for grooming and injury inspection. Later in the day, the horse may undergo another exercise session, and the trainer typically supervises all these activities. In addition to training horses, horse trainers also teach people how to interact with horses properly. Horse trainers teach jockeys how to direct and manage racehorses. They also teach horse owners how to care for and handle horses.
Cleaning horse stables and grooming are sometimes the duties of horse trainers. If these duties are delegated to other equine workers, the horse trainer supervises the chores. Horse trainers also acclimate horses to walking onto horse trailers to get them used to being relocated whenever necessary.
Working in stables and as horse groomers is a way many horse trainers begin their careers, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (www.bls.gov). Proficient riding abilities and knowledge of horse husbandry is often mandatory. Some horse training positions have weight requirements.
Some horse trainers work as horse trainer apprentices where they perform stable chores, exercise horses, feed and groom horses and any other duties their mentors ask. Completing an equine studies program, which is offered by some colleges, is another way horse trainers learn required skills. Courses may include horsemanship, equine anatomy and physiology, facility management, equine behavior, animal ethics and welfare, equine nutrition and equine diseases.
The BLS reported that the animal care and services field (which included horse and other animal trainers) was predicted to increase 23% from 2010-2020, which was more than the national average. According to the BLS, animal trainers earned an average yearly wage of $30,340 in May 2012. The top ten percent of these professionals took in $49,840 or more every year, while the bottom ten percent of workers made $17,580 or less annually.
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