How to Become a FBI Special Agent
Research the requirements to become an FBI special agent. Learn about the job description and duties, and read the step-by-step process to start a career as a special agent.
Requirements to Become an FBI Special Agent
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) special agents work for the federal government and conduct investigations in accordance with federal laws. These professionals analyze a wide range of cases; many have skills in a specific area, such as engineering or accounting. FBI special agents must hold at least a bachelor's degree and go through a rigorous testing and training process. The following table outlines requirements to become a special agent, as reported in 2012 by the FBI:
|Degree Level||Bachelor's degree is required; a higher degree may increase likelihood of hire|
|Degree Field||Varies depending on career goals/area of interest; could include accounting, law, computer science or language studies|
|Experience||A minimum of 3 years related work experience|
|Key Skills||Strong verbal and written communication skills; knowledge of federal laws; knowledge of firearms and police work; other skills sets vary depending on area of specialization|
|Additional Requirements||Candidates must be U.S. citizens who are 23-37 years of age, meet certain vision requirements, are in good physical health, have a clean criminal background, pass a drug test and polygraph examination, possess a valid driver's license|
Step 1: Obtain a Bachelor's Degree
Aspiring FBI special agents must have a bachelor's degree. The type of degree depends on which entry program an individual is interested in. Currently, 5 entry programs exist for special agent candidates: computer science and information, accounting, language, law and diversified. The diversified entry program is the most inclusive position and only specifies that applicants hold a Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts. On the other hand, the accounting entry program requires applicants to have an undergraduate accounting degree.
- Complete an internship. Participating in an internship can help students expand their education outside of a classroom environment and gain hands-on training in the field. Students can apply for both paid and non-paid internships directly through the FBI.
- Consider an advanced degree. While a bachelor's degree is the required minimum for employment, possessing a higher degree could help an applicant stand out in the competitive FBI application process. A master's degree in a field like criminology could also allow applicants to enter a more specialized special agent position.
- Begin building physical strength. Since a physical examination is part of the FBI hiring process, students should begin building their strength and endurance as soon as possible. Students can participate in cardiovascular and strength-training routines while still in college to ensure they can later meet all physical tests when they apply.
Step 2: Gain Related Work Experience
The average work experience required for a potential FBI special agent position is 3 years in a field related to his or her degree. The FBI seeks candidates with specific critical skills, including knowledge of accounting, engineering, law, military, science or foreign languages, so professional full-time work in these areas is preferred by some agencies.
Step 3: Complete the FBI Application Process
Because of the sensitivity of FBI special agent work, all applicants must pass an extensive background check, a polygraph and a drug test. Individuals cannot have a felony conviction or default on student loans. The background check involves a thorough investigation into all records, including a credit check, as well as interviews with family, friends, colleagues and other people an applicant has had contact with throughout his or her life. The background check process can take several months.
Additionally, FBI special agents must meet strict physical fitness standards. Applicants are required to complete a physical examination by a doctor and submit their medical records to the agency. They must meet specific vision and hearing requirements. They also need to pass a physical fitness self-assessment test that includes completing a maximum number of sit-ups and push-ups, as well as a timed 300-meter sprint and 1.5-mile run.
Step 4: Complete Training
Once an applicant has passed all the necessary requirements and tests, he or she then must complete 20 weeks of on-campus training at the FBI Academy. FBI special agent training consists of classroom time and hands-on instruction, such as firearm training, as well as Web-based instruction. Upon completion, graduates are sworn in as FBI special agents. They are then assigned to a field office where they begin a 2-year probationary period that is guided by a special agent mentor to help them apply their training to new assignments.
Step 5: Pursue Continuing Education
FBI special agents can continue their education throughout their careers by applying for training in specialized areas of the FBI. For example, special agents interested in learning more about criminal behavior could apply for training offered by the Behavioral Science Unit of the FBI. Agents interested in learning more about counterintelligence could attend the Intelligence Training Section offered by the FBI Academy.
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