How to Become an ER Doctor: Career and Education Roadmap
Learn how to become an emergency room (ER) doctor. Research the education and career requirements, licensure and experience required for starting a career as an ER doctor.
ER Doctor Requirements
An ER doctor treats and cares for patients admitted to an emergency room. Once patients arrive, an ER doctor is responsible for a number of duties such as assessing their conditions and beginning treatment, ordering tests or X-rays or providing medication. ER doctors stabilize a trauma patient or treat injuries like lacerations, broken bones and sprains. If a specialist is necessary, an ER doctor will call them or admit the patient for further care.
Like other medical doctors, ER doctors must graduate from medical school and earn a medical license. After graduating from medical school and getting a license, aspiring ER doctors will need to participate in an ER residency program. The table below includes the requirements to become an ER doctor.
|Degree Level||Medical degree*|
|Licensing||Medical doctors must pass the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE)**|
|Experience||Experience in an ER residency program is required**|
|Key Skills||ER doctors must be able to work under pressure and have strong communication skills**|
Sources: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), **Monster.com (August 2012).
Step 1: Earn a Bachelor's Degree
While there is no specific major for prospective medical doctors to pursue, it's important that they complete science-related courses in a bachelor's degree program. Several schools also offer a pre-medical track that can be pursued with the assistance of a pre-professional adviser, who direct students in which courses they should take. Students will have to take related courses like cellular biology, human physiology and organic chemistry, but will also have to take courses in English, mathematics and physics.
- Think about volunteering or working in a medical facility. Enrollment into medical school is very competitive and having experience in a hospital or clinic can be beneficial. While you may be able to find employment opportunities, volunteering is also an option and will make your application more appealing.
Step 2: Take the MCAT
The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is an examination that assesses an applicant's readiness for medical school. Medical schools use the scores from this exam to determine whether an applicant has the critical thinking, problem-solving and writing skills necessary to succeed at that level. The exam includes topics in physical sciences, biological sciences, verbal reasoning and writing.
Step 3: Earn a Doctor of Medicine Degree
The first two years of medical school focus on coursework and laboratory experiences. This is an opportunity for students to learn about topics like microbiology, anatomy, pharmacology, medical ethics, physiology and immunology. The final two years of the program offer students a chance to participate in clinical rotations involving things like emergency medicine, cardiology, gynecology, psychology, orthopedics and more. Medical students will begin working with patients, taking medical histories and completing basic procedures under the supervision of experienced physicians.
- Complete an emergency department internship. Before you begin your fourth year of medical school, you can participate in an internship with an emergency department. Not only will this give you experience, but will help you with your residency application.
Step 4: Earn a License to Practice Medicine
In order to practice medicine, medical doctors need to obtain a license from the state in which they plan to practice. In order to earn licensure, doctors must pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). This is a 3-part exam that tests applicants on their ability to care for patients and work in a medical and emergency setting.
Step 5: Complete a Residency Program
An emergency medicine residency lasts three years. The residency usually consists of conferences, lab work and clinical simulations. Conference topics usually cover specific areas of emergency medicine like cardiovascular or pulmonary treatment, while labs train doctors in specific skills like airway management, repairing of wounds or orthopedics. In clinical simulations, students work on manikins and are put into simulated situations that they might face on a day-to-day basis in a healthcare setting. Emergency medicine residency can also include peer review, seminars and, eventually, supervised clinical training in a real world setting.
- Consider a specialization through a fellowship program. As an ER doctor, you can specialize in the field by participating in a fellowship program. A fellowship will provide you with training in a subspecialty, such as pediatric emergency medicine, pain management, disaster medicine or medical toxicology.
Related to How to Become an ER Doctor: Career and Education Roadmap
- Recently Updated
Because they are often the first to attend to patients with urgent, life-threatening conditions, ER nurses must be able to...
Emergency room doctors respond to life-and-death situations making instant decisions and providing emergency medical treatment....
Most people have a perception of med school that includes countless hours of lectures, lab work and studying without much sleep...
Individuals with bachelor's degrees can be employed in various technological, patient care and administrative areas in the...
- ER Nurse Certification and Degree Program Information
- Online Emergency Medical Training Information
- Emergency Room Nurse Certification and Certificate Program Info
- Pediatric Dentists: Job Duties & Requirements
- Electrical Field Service Technician: Duties, Outlook and Salary
- Interventional Neurologist: Salary, Duties and Career Outlook
- What Should Aspiring Pharmacists Major In?