Artist Education Requirements and Career Information
Artists use an ever-expanding array of methods and materials to put their thoughts and emotions into tangible form. Their work may be realistic and representational of people, places and events, or it may be highly abstract. The majority of artists are self-employed, while others find work in industries such as digital and print publishing, advertising, video game development and motion pictures. Teaching, at all educational levels, is another career option for artists.
Artist Education Requirements
Artistry is an ability that comes naturally to many, so formal education isn't always required for a career as an artist. However, many artists find that education and training can help them fine-tune techniques or learn specialized skills that may make them more employable. For example, a 3-D animator needs training in the computer programs used to create 3-D animation, and an elementary school art teacher needs a bachelor's degree in art and a teaching certificate.
Art Degree Programs
Formal art education and training may be obtained in several ways. Many colleges and universities offer programs leading to a bachelor's or master's degree in fine arts. Additionally, there are postsecondary, independent schools of art and design that offer studio training in multimedia arts, as well as fine arts and crafts. Programs at these schools may lead to a certificate in an artistic specialty or to an associate's or bachelor's degree in fine arts. Independent art school instruction tends to focus on studio work, while university and college programs also emphasize academics.
The National Association of Schools in Art and Design (NASAD) has accredited approximately 294 institutions that offer educational programs in art and design. Most of these accredited programs lead to a degree in art. NASAD also establishes national standards for undergraduate and graduate art education (nasad.arts-accredit.org).
Art curriculum includes not only courses in studio art and art history, but also instruction in core subjects, such as science and English. Because computer graphics and other visual display software are increasingly used in visual arts, many art programs now include computer training.
There are many types of art and artists, but the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) divides working artists into four general categories: fine artists (a group that includes painters, illustrators and sculptors), multimedia artists and animators, craft artists and art directors. In addition, cartoonists, print-makers, painting restorers and sketch artists all have art-related careers.
Fine artists produce original artwork, using paint, acrylics, charcoal, ink, clay, plaster, metal and other materials. Some of their work is commission-based and may be displayed in museums, private galleries or in corporate and private collections. Craft artists work with a broad range of materials, including glass, ceramics, fabric and pottery, to produce mostly handmade original objects and reproductions that they sell in their studios, stores or at arts and crafts shows.
Art directors work in advertising and publishing, developing concepts and selecting designs that appear in printed or digital media. In addition, multimedia artists and animators work chiefly in the motion picture or video gaming industries, with other jobs available in advertising or computer programming.
Typically, artists hired by companies start out by doing routine work as they build their skills and observe other artists at work. Craft and fine artists build their reputations and increase their earning potential by circulating their work and making a name for themselves in a particular style.
Many artists do freelance work while they are still in school or hold full-time jobs in other occupations. Freelancing gives artists the opportunity to gain experience and establish themselves in the profession, build a client base and create a portfolio that showcases their talents and skills. Developing a specialty, such as illustrating children's books or cartooning, is another path some artists take to professional advancement and higher income.
According to the BLS, about 60% of all artists are self-employed, with salaries that vary widely. Some self-employed artists earn more than do salaried artists, while others cannot support themselves solely from their art. Of the artists who weren't self-employed, art directors made the highest salaries, with median annual wages of $76,980 in 2008. Multimedia artists and animators came in next, with median annual wages of $56,330. Fine artists made median annual wages of $42,650, while craft artists had the lowest median annual wages of the group, at $29,080 (www.bls.gov).
Both salaried and self-employed artists can expect strong competition for jobs, predicted the BLS, because the number of creative people who want to work as artists is much greater than the number of job openings. Job growth in the occupation as a whole was expected to be about as fast as average, or 12%, from 2008-2018.
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