What Do You Need to Be a Police Officer?
As first responders to crime and other emergencies, police officers pursue and arrest perpetrators, contain situations and ensure civilian safety. Officers conduct investigations at crime scenes, which may involve talking with witnesses, obtaining evidence and determining potential suspects. To become a police officer, individuals need to meet physical and educational requirements, as well as complete a state-approved police academy training program.
Step 1: Take Postsecondary Courses
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), before becoming a police officer, applicants need to meet the minimum educational requirements, which usually include a high school diploma or its equivalent (www.bls.gov). Most law enforcement agencies require that police officer applicants complete some college-level courses prior to entering police academy. Earning an undergraduate degree may also be required for some police officer positions, but that requirement varies by department.
Most individuals enroll in criminal justice or police science degree programs. Coursework in criminal justice degree programs includes criminology, evidence gathering, law enforcement strategies and constitutional rights. Police science degree programs require similar coursework, but these programs usually offer more opportunities for students to specialize through various degree concentrations, such as police administration or crime scene investigations. Furthermore, some police science degree programs require students to be simultaneously enrolled in police academy.
Step 2: Pass Background Checks and Physical Exams
Before being accepted into police academy applicants must pass a thorough background check. Depending on the state, the background check process may include interviews of an applicant's acquaintances and family members, a criminal record review and a credit history check. To become a police officer, applicants must also pass physical examinations, which include testing an individual's sense of hearing and sight, as well as verifying a person's level of strength, stamina, dexterity and overall agility. Some states may also require that applicants pass a psychiatric evaluation to verify if individuals can handle stressful situations.
Step 3: Choose an Area of Specialty
A police station consists of several specialty departments, including property crimes, narcotics and organized crime. Individuals who want to be police officers may work in one of these specialty departments, which could involve taking additional coursework while enrolled in police academy. Not all police academies train candidates for each department specialty, so individuals may need to compare academy programs to find the best options.
Besides specializing in a specific department, some individuals may want to work in specific locations. For instance, those who want to work at the local level may choose to work for cities, towns or universities, and those who want to enforce the law on the freeways and highways may want to join the highway patrol or sheriff's department. State and federal police positions are also available, but often require more training and experience. Working as a police officer for some of the locations listed above may require completing additional training programs other than basic police academy training program.
Step 4: Complete Police Academy
Individuals need to complete police academy in order to be a police officer. Each state has different police academy requirements, and police officers trained out-of-state may have to take additional courses to meet state requirements.
Several institutions split up police academy training program into two distinct areas, including classroom learning and physical training. Classroom coursework covers patrolling procedures, police skills, first aid and police technology. Physical training includes stamina and strength building, firearms techniques, escorting criminals, defensive driving and self-defense.
The BLS estimates a 7% job growth for police and detectives in the coming 2010-2020 decade. In May 2012, the median annual wages of police and sheriff's patrol officers were $55,270.
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