What Kind of Degree Do I Need to Be a Veterinarian?
Veterinarians are healthcare workers specializing in care for pets, competition animals, laboratory animals and livestock. Prospective professionals in this field must first complete an undergraduate program focusing on biology or pre-veterinary study followed by a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program.
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
To become a veterinarian, a candidate must earn a DVM from an accredited college or university. Many veterinary school graduates go on to complete 1-year, unpaid internships under supervision. As post-graduate students, veterinarians can also complete 3-4 year residencies if they wish to become board certified in a specialty area of veterinary medicine.
DVM program applicants must submit GRE scores, letters of recommendation, essays and academic transcripts. A bachelor's degree isn't necessarily required in order to enter a veterinary program, but applicants must have a designated number of undergraduate credit hours completed. However, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), most applicants hold a bachelor's degree (www.bls.gov). Many schools also look for candidates who have experience working or volunteering in veterinary clinics or similar settings.
The curriculum for veterinary medicine students includes classroom-based lectures, seminars and lab work. Coursework focuses on animal health, animal behavior, anesthesiology and veterinary ethics. To gain hands-on experience, candidates participate in clinical rotations during the third and fourth years of the DVM program. Clinicals allow students to explore various areas of veterinary medicine, like small animal surgery, emergency care for animals and dermatology.
Licensing is required in all states before veterinarians can practice. To obtain licensure, an individual must pass the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE). This computer-based test is offered during two separate periods each year at Prometric testing sites. Students have 6.5 hours to complete the 360 multiple-choice questions of the NAVLE. In addition, aspiring veterinarians may be required to take state-administered exams.
Employment Outlook and Salary Info
Veterinarian employment was expected to grow 36% from 2010-2020, notes the BLS. As of 2011, the United States has 28 accredited schools of veterinary medicine that graduate approximately 2,500 students each year. The limited number of new veterinarians and the fact that most choose to work with companion animals contribute to employment growth within the field, especially in large animal care and government positions.
Most veterinarians work in professional, scientific and technical services, in addition to social advocacy organizations, universities and government agencies. As of May 2012, veterinarians earned a median annual wage of $84,460, reports the BLS.
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